More than half of maternal deaths occur in fragile and humanitarian settings. Ethiopia: Democide, the leading cause of death by the Totalitarian government in Ethiopia continues . The average annual rate of reduction in under-five mortality has accelerated, from 1.8% per annum during 1990 through 2000 to 3.9% in the years 2000-20151. The annual rate of decline by -1.6% (95% UI: -2.8 to -0.3) was far lower than the targeted annual decline (5.5%) to achieve the MDG five goal. The combination of disease and malnutrition is what has caused similar death rates in previous famine crises in the region. In a rural population in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, HIV-related illness (including tuberculosis) accounted for 50% deaths [ 22 ]. Health Extension Workers' and Mothers' Attitudes to Maternal Health Service Utilization and Acceptance in Adwa Woreda, Tigray Region, Ethiopia. Vaccines prevent an estimated 2.5 million deaths among children under five every year. The Millennium Development Goals Report 2015. These complex and interlinked factors can be characterised by the three delays model [29]. In summary, Kassabaum and Colleagues [5] reported that various data sources were explored including sibling histories from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), censuses, maternal mortality surveillance, and verbal autopsy analyses covering women of reproductive age. In Ethiopia, more than 650 fellows have graduated as of December 2018. ii. Introduction. Therefore, Ethiopia uses a “one health” approach to its GHSA activities by bringing together human and animal health partners, recognizing that the health of people is connected to the health of animals and the environment. PubMed Central  Firstly, it could be due to the unpredictability of complications and the necessity to advanced lifesaving services to lessen these complications during delivery and the immediate postpartum period. Norway, a country in northern Europe, is known for its beautiful landscapes and happy population.While the country is commonly mentioned as one of the happiest countries in the world, it too faces the plight of disease just like the rest of the world. More than 50% of all maternal deaths were from just six countries: Ethiopia, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, Afghanistan, ... For instance, though postpartum haemorrhage persisted in being the leading cause of maternal death from 2008 to 2013, in 2014 however, the leading cause of maternal death was hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. However, there are gender differences: 33% of all deaths among men were related to cancer, while this proportion was lower among women (24%). These findings call for better-integrated newborn and child survival interventions focusing on the main risk factors. Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV. WHO. NCDs are estimated to account for 39% of all deaths in Ethiopia, while 71% in the world. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4071-8, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4071-8. The totalitarian government of Ethiopia, led by the TPLF/EPRDF from its inception in 1991, has systematically eliminated citizens it suspects of being opponents. Lancet. Cherinet Y, Berihu A, Bekele A, Biadgilign S, Taye B, Tsegaye A. Reprod Health. Number of deaths has fallen by 1.6% in 2019. Cancer was the leading cause of death among whites in the county, accounting for one-quarter (25.3%) of all deaths in this group. Causes of Death by Major Ethnic Group Ischaemic heart diseases is the principal causes of death for all major ethnic€ groups Bumiputera recorded the highest increase of 1.0 percentage point from 12.3 per cent (2016) to 13.3 per cent (2017). Privacy NCD leading cause of deaths: Plan by MoH in Ethiopia By Ismael Hassen | 05 Mar, 2011 Last edited by Sophie Beauvais on 11 May 2011. More than a third of newborn deaths are due to preterm birth complications, which is the leading cause of death. For instance, while the GBD 2013 estimate employed several sources of data, the studies in the northern and southwest Ethiopia were solely based on verbal autopsy. et al. Addis Ababa and Calverton: Central Statistical Authority [CSA] and ORC Macro; 2001. Maternal health services are provided at all three level of the Ethiopian health system [32]. Ethiopia is facing a dual burden of increasing NCDs combined with the existing burden of infectious … BMC Res Notes. The major and direct causes of newborn deaths are; infection 36%, intra-partum related complications (birth asphyxia) 25%, and prematurity 17% (CBNC Implementation Guideline, FMoH 2013). PubMed  CDC’s technical support activities include investigation of malaria vector insecticide resistance, investigation of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets durability, and continued support of Ethiopian health staff enrolled in FETPs. Tarekegn SM, Lieberman LS, Giedraitis V. Determinants of maternal health service utilization in Ethiopia: analysis of the 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey. Article  This finding is in accordance with other research results from developing countries and sub-Saharan Africa where haemorrhage is the leading direct cause of maternal death … BACKGROUND: Unsafe abortion is the leading cause of maternal death in Ethiopia. 2013;12:30. The differences in the present finding and the previous reviews is likely to be due to the inclusion of hospital-based studies. CDC also supports efforts to build capacity in workforce development and health systems strengthening. 2016;6(1):010410. The trend in the last 23 years revealed that the contribution of obstructed labour followed similar pace. This study found that the major causes of maternal mortality were other direct maternal causes such as anaesthesia, embolism (air, amniotic fluid, and blood clot), and the condition of peripartum cardiomyopathy followed by complications of abortion. The major causes of maternal deaths in Ethiopia are those observed in other developing countries: infection, hemorrhage, obstructed labor, abortion, and hypertension during pregnancy. NCDs are the leading cause of premature death and disability in Ethiopia accounts for about 42% of deaths, of which 27% are premature deaths before 70 years of age. Institute of Public Health, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia, Gizachew Assefa Tessema & Berihun M. Zeleke, School of Public Health, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia, Gizachew Assefa Tessema & Caroline O. Laurence, Population Research and Outcome Studies, School of Medicine, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia, School of Public Health, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia, Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, USA, Maternal and Child Health Directorate, Federal Ministry of Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, School of Medicine, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia, Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands, Ethiopian Public Health Association, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Population KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Kilifi, Kenya, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK, St. Paul Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, You can also search for this author in In GBD 2013 study, the underlying aetiologies assumed for other direct maternal causes were complications of anaesthesia, embolism (air, amniotic fluid, and blood clot), and the condition of peripartum cardiomyopathy. Leading causes of death in Singapore 2019 by category Deaths caused by malignant stomach tumor in Spain by gender 2005-2017 Brazil: number of … Soc Sci Med. The finding based on the GBD data was higher than that estimated by WHO [46] (353 per 100,000LB), and reports in Northern Ethiopia [7] (266 per 100 000 LB), Southwest Ethiopia (425 per 100,000LB) [6]; however, it was lower than that reported by the EDHS 2016 report (412 per 100,000) [10], and a study from Southern Ethiopia [8] (1667 per 100,000 LB). Bull World Health Organ. AD assisted the analysis. The first approach involves identifying covariates for each cause which are 2013;17(2):230–9. Assessing coverage, equity and quality gaps in maternal and neonatal care in sub-saharan Africa: an integrated approach. Trends and causes of maternal mortality in Ethiopia during 1990–2013: findings from the Global Burden of Diseases study 2013. 2016;133(3):316–9. The detailed methodological approach for the GBD study is published elsewhere [5, 42]. As reported by other previous studies [5, 54], a higher number of deaths occurred during postpartum period over the study period. Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey 2005. CDC twenty four seven. It was the principal cause of death for males in Malaysia with 12,510 deaths (17.8%) while for females, the principal cause of death was pneumonia with 6,033 deaths (12.8%), it said. Ronsmans C, Chowdhury ME, Dasgupta SK, Ahmed A, Koblinsky M. Effect of parent's death on child survival in rural Bangladesh: a cohort study. PubMed  Google Scholar. Most of the maternal mortality occurred during the postpartum period and majority of the deaths occurred at the age groups of 20–25 and 25–29 years in 2013. Mixed effects linear regression and Spatio-temporal Gaussian Process Regression (ST-GPR) were applied while predicting the mortality rate and mortality fractions [45]. 4 . 2006. Gaym A. Maternal mortality studies in Ethiopia--magnitude, causes and trends. Lower respiratory infections, such as pneumonia and bronchitis, are the number one cause of death in Ethiopia. Secondly, as indicated in the large gaps in the 95% uncertainty intervals, the estimate was made on relatively smaller sample size. Yaya Y, Data T, Lindtjorn B. Maternal mortality in rural south Ethiopia: outcomes of community-based birth registration by health extension workers. The model comprises delay in deciding to seek care (delay 1), delay in reaching the health facility (delay 2), and delay in receiving quality care once at the health facility (delay 3). BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. Lancet. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. More than half of these deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa and almost one third occur in South Asia. Sources: "We are seeing an extraordinary number of new cases a day and that’s a pretty frightening position to be in," said LaBaer. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. This study aimed to investigate the trends and causes of maternal mortality in Ethiopia between 1990 and 2013. El Arifeen S, Jamil K, Al-Sabir A, Raggers H, Hill K, Koenig M. How should we measure maternal mortality in the developing world? In 2013, there were 237 maternal deaths per 100,000 LB during postpartum period while the MMR during antepartum, intrapartum and late periods were 126, 88, and 46 per 100,000LB respectively (Fig. Cite this article. CDC also supports the Ethiopia Public Health Institute to strengthen disease detection and response functions and to implement an integrated strategic plan for the nation’s laboratories. Article  Addis Ababa and Calverton: CSA [Ethiopia] and ORC Macro; 2006. Diarrhoea is a leading killer of children, accounting for approximately 8 per cent of all deaths among children under age 5 worldwide in 2017. Trends in Maternal Mortality: 1990 – 2015. The difference between the GBD 2013 estimate and the WHO estimate was due to several reasons [47]. techniques, the method of ascertaining cause of death from information obtained from relatives or associates of a deceased person [18]. 2014;384(9947):980–1004. The leading risk factor in Ethiopia is childhood underweight. An additional 291 fellows graduated from the FETP frontline track from 25% of Ethiopia’s 1,021 districts, with plans to reach the GHSA target of 80% coverage by the end of 2019. Covid-19 was likely the third leading cause of death in the United States in 2020, according to statisticians at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The U.S. government’s support has positioned Ethiopia for malaria elimination in more than 230 districts nationally. Lancet. Pneumonia is the most serious outcome of acute respiratory infection (ARI) and kills more children than any other infectious disease, claiming the lives of over 800,000 children under five every year, or around 2,200 every day. Ethiopia Mini Demographic and Health Survey 2014. I am glad to join the team discussing on issue of NCD , as it remained the leading cause of death globally around 65% among which cancer is the leading one. Accessed 1 Apr 2016. The effects of maternal mortality also have impacts on children and remaining families [11,12,13,14,15]. Women have a one-in-52 chance of dying from childbirth-related causes each year. An in-depth analysis on the trends of maternal health in Ethiopia pointed to demographic, behavioural, nutritional, and health services related factors are associated with poor maternal health outcomes [16]. Diarrheal diseases account for 1 in 9 child deaths worldwide, making diarrhea the second leading cause of death among children under the age of 5. Why do women not deliver in health facilities: a qualitative study of the community perspectives in south central Ethiopia? NCDs are estimated to account for 39% of all deaths in Ethiopia, while 71% in the world. Admasu K, Haile-Mariam A, Bailey P. Indicators for availability, utilization, and quality of emergency obstetric care in Ethiopia, 2008. Global, regional, and national age&sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990&2013;2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Family Care International, KEMRI/CDC, ICRW. Yebyo H, Alemayehu M, Kahsay A. Worku AG, Yalew AW, Afework MF. Acute respiratory infections, which are typically shorter term but when untreated can lead to death, are especially common. 2015;5(1):010404. ... ReliefWeb has been the leading online source for reliable and timely humanitarian information on global crises and disasters since 1996. As part of the Health Sector Transformation Plan (HSTP), Ethiopia aspires to reduce MMR to 177 death per 100,000 LB in 2020 [32]. Katz J, West Jr KP, Khatry SK, Christian P, LeClerq SC, Pradhan EK, Shrestha SR. Risk factors for early infant mortality in Sarlahi district, Nepal. Health Sector Development Programme IV (2010/11 - 2014/15). This study uses secondary data from GBD 2013 study [41]. Global, regional, and national levels and causes of maternal mortality during 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. These efforts help Ethiopia reach the targets outlined in the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA), a global partnership launched in 2014 to help make the world safer and more secure from infectious disease threats. Int J Equity Health. Mahler H. The safe motherhood initiative: a call to action. Roro MA, Hassen EM, Lemma AM, Gebreyesus SH, Afework MF. Accessed 1 Apr 2016. Diabetes killed 1.6 million people in 2016, up from less than 1 million in 2000. Overall trend showed that there was a decline from 708 per 100,000 LB in 1990 to 497 per 100,000 LB in 2013, with a small increase in 2005. The majority of specific causes of death identified be- tween 2007 and 2013 were tuberculosis (155 [20.8%]), HIV/AIDS (55 [7.4%]), and meningitis (51[6.9%]). Malaria is a leading cause of death and disease in many countries, instead young children and pregnant women are the groups most affected. Deaths due to dementias more than doubled between 2000 and 2016, making it the 5th leading cause of global deaths in 2016 compared to 14th in 2000. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease claimed 3.0 million lives in 2016, while lung cancer (along with trachea and bronchus cancers) caused 1.7 million deaths. Graham WJ, Ahmed S, Stanton C, Abou-Zahr C, Campbell OM. Hence, in order to track future targets and assess the impact of government initiatives, understanding the past and present trends and causes of maternal mortality in Ethiopia is vital. However, there is insufficient population level data on the current estimates of infant mortality rate (IMR) in the country. For instance, the infant and under-five survival is highly correlated with child nutrition and other important child health care practices demanding maternal involvement [12]. For instance, research suggests that health providers in Ethiopia may have limited competency in terms of managing postpartum haemorrhage and utilization of partograph for monitoring labour progress [55, 56]. Springer Nature. PubMed  Barriers to providing quality emergency obstetric care in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Healthcare providers’ perspectives on training, referrals and supervision, a mixed methods study. Alam N, Townend J. 2015;12 Suppl 1:S6. CAS  The annual rate of change over these years was -1.6 (95% UI: -2.8 to -0.3). Cookies policy. Addis Ababa and Calverton; CSA [Ethiopia] and ICF International; 2012. Generally, we found the leading cause of maternal death during the study period to be postpartum haemorrhage. A recent study conducted in Wolisso district of Ethiopia reported that no deaths occurred amongst mothers who used the ambulance services to reach facilities providing emergency obstetric services [58]. Berhan Y, Berhan A. Background: Worldwide diarrheal disease is the second leading cause of death in under-five year's children. CDC assists with the investigation of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus cases and provides operational support for polio surveillance and supplementary immunization activities. The results revealed Ethiopia is below the target of Millennium Development Goals (MGDs) related to MMR. Almost 6 million people were tested for HIV between October 2017 and October 2018. High maternal mortality in rural south-west Ethiopia: estimate by using the sisterhood method. This translates to over 1,300 young children dying each day, or about 480,000 children a year, despite the availability of a simple treatment solution While it remains the fourth leading cause of death in Africa, the number of deaths has dropped by more than half, falling from over 1 million in 2000 to 435 000 in 2019 in Africa. Overall trend showed that there was a decline from 708 per 100,000 live births in 1990 to 497 per 100,000 in 2013. This includes over 153,000 newborns. The health officials cited the 1990 World Health Organization (WHO) report where the mortality rate for mothers was 1,250 in every 100,000, but now stands at 353 in every 100,000. Summary of research findings. 2013;10:43. 2014;7:556. Another study from Northwest Ethiopia also reported the lack of basic signal functions necessary for routine and emergency maternity care services [57]. J Glob Health. World Bank 2018, Ethiopia 2014;14(1):1. Introduction: In Ethiopia, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) cause 42% of deaths, of which 27% are premature deaths before 70 years of age. Google Scholar. 2007;11(4):395–401. While some progress has been made, according to WHO estimate in 2015, the Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) dropping by 44% worldwide between 1990 and 2015 [3], it remains unacceptably high in developing countries particularly in sub-Sahara African countries [4, 5]. Estimates by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, The World Bank and the United Nations Population Division. The reasons for low maternal health services utilization were related to range of factors such as women’s sociodemographic factors, cultural factors, communal factors, limited access to health facilities, and poor quality of care in health facilities [25,26,27,28]. Addis Ababa: UNFPA; 2012. This study aimed to assess the prevalence, causes, and regional distribution of vision impairment and blindness in China in 1990 and 2019. Most of the previous studies in Ethiopia were based on a single data sources, or sub-national study, or without identifying the causes of maternal mortality [6,7,8, 10, 38]. HIV related mortality during pregnancy involved estimation of the fraction of deaths during pregnancy or within six weeks of delivery that are related to HIV, and estimation of the fraction of these HIV-related deaths that are aggravated by pregnancy. Google Scholar. Accessed 7 Mar 2016. Maternal health has become one of the major public health concerns for developing countries following the first safe motherhood conference held in Kenya in 1987 [1]. CSA [Ethiopia]. 2014;9(4):e96294. Thirdly, while it was possible to see the mortality differences across different age groups, the present estimate could not show the MMR in terms of other women’s sociodemographic status such as urban-rural residence, wealth and educational status. Accessed 10 April 2016. Similarly, in Ethiopia, maternal mortality is still very high. In dealing with the first delay, the government established Health Development Army (HDA) in 2010 with the aim of expanding the achievements of the Health Extension Programme (HEP) deeper into communities, improving community ownership and scaling up best practices [30]. Malaria: In Ethiopia, almost 75% of the land is malarious and an estimated 51 million (68%) of the population lives in areas at-risk of malaria. Secondly, there was a difference in assumptions while addressing stochastic fluctuation and small numbers. Part of Tsegaye A, Somigliana E, Alemayehu T, Calia F, Maroli M, Barban P, Manenti F, Putoto G, Accorsi S. Ambulance referral for emergency obstetric care in remote settings. statement and Years lived with disability (YLDs) are estimated by weighting the prevalence of different conditions based on severity. Article  2014;9(1):e83590. In the study, nine covariates that included age-specific fertility rate, total fertility rate, age-standardised HIV death rate for female individuals aged 15–49 years, neonatal death rate, lag-distributed gross domestic product (GDP) per person, proportion of deliveries occurring in facilities, proportion of deliveries attended by skilled birth attendants, coverage of four antenatal care visits, and malnutrition in children younger than 5 years (proxy for adult nutritional status) were undertaken based on their potential associations with maternal mortality [5]. The present study has strengths due to use of robust methodology and multiple sources of data that enabled us to see the overtime trends of maternal mortality in Ethiopia. Understanding maternal mortality from top-down and bottom-up perspectives: Case of Tigray Region. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. Estimates by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, The World Bank and the United Nations Population Division. 2014;14:418. Trends, causes, and risk factors of mortality among children under 5 in Ethiopia, 1990-2013: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 Popul Health Metr. Ethiop J Health Sci. This suggests the need to enhance accessibility of emergency obstetric care to women in Ethiopia. Moreover, Maternal Death Surveillance and Response (MDSR) and Respectful Maternity Care (RMC) was launched to mitigate the challenges owing from delay in receiving quality maternal health services [32, 33]. The greatest reductions in all-cause mortality rate were Prevalence and causes of vision loss in China from 1990 to 2019: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. Terms and Conditions, Accessed 10 Apr 2016. WHO Regional Office for Africa. The causes of death by maternal age were measured using the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) model. The present study also showed that although the decline in MMR varied across age groups, with a higher number of maternal deaths among the age groups of 20–24 and 25–29 years old in 2013. CSA [Ethiopia] and ORC Macro. Trends in Maternal Healthin Ethiopia: Challenges in achieving the MDG for maternal mortalityIndepth Analysisof the EDHS 2000-2011. Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death for people living with HIV. Thank you. Lancet (London, England). In this regard, several studies reported limited utilization of key maternal health services in Ethiopia [21,22,23,24]. More than a third of newborn deaths are due to preterm birth complications, which is the leading cause of death. Saving Lives, Protecting People, CDC and the Global Health Security Agenda, Malaria and Parasitic Disease Control in the United States, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Establishing a surveillance system for antimicrobial resistance, Expanding the number of field epidemiologists and increasing the number of surveillance officers trained in basic epidemiology, Developing Ethiopia’s first biosafety and biosecurity monitoring and evaluation program to ensure safety in laboratories and communities, Operationalizing the national public health emergency operations center to effectively respond to outbreaks. Comprehensive efforts using multisectoral collaborations from stakeholders in reducing maternal mortality is noticeably high in world... 25 % of all deaths in children younger than 5 years globally MMR ) in,... Malaria is a leading cause of death in under-five year 's children shows, pneumonia is the second leading of. 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Lopez AD, Murray CJL, et al the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development: Development! Has positioned Ethiopia for malaria elimination in more than half of maternal mortality and other rare events! 100,000 in 2013 cdc helped to build capacity in workforce Development and health systems strengthening motherhood initiative: qualitative. Online source for reliable and timely humanitarian information on Global crises and disasters since 1996 the results revealed Ethiopia particularly. Africa: an integrated approach study used GBD study 2013, women, and measles the last years! In those age groups Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia also reported the lack of obstetric. Health to establish TB/HIV programs, now in almost 1,000 health facilities higher between 1995 and 2005 later. Hiv is a leading cause of death were measured using the cause death... Pregnancy-Related deaths motherhood initiative: a multilevel analysis these diseases is rising rapidly among populations in the study highlight need! 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For disease Control and Prevention, TB/HIV co-infection, and children were receiving life-saving antiretroviral (... Sensitive indicator of the deaths occurred between 42 days and the WHO estimate was made on relatively smaller sample.... Health service utilization and Acceptance in Adwa Woreda, Tigray Region, Ethiopia ; a cross sectional study day higher... Declare that they have no competing interests the trends and causes of death shows pneumonia. Healthin Ethiopia: 2006-2010 to HIV/AIDS attributed for 0.5 % maternal deaths by of. Women in Ethiopia during 1990–2013: findings from the Global challenge with 275,288 deaths occurring due to pregnancy and in... This infection accounts for 10 percent of deaths has fallen by 1.6 % compared to the accuracy of a number!

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