“The Mousetrap” twice reenacts Claudius’s murder of his brother—first in the dumb show and then in the play proper—drawing out the effect so exquisitely that the King’s enraged interruption produces an extraordinary discharge of tension. It was first adapted for the English theater in the late 1580s in the form of the so-called Ur-Hamlet, a play attributed to Thomas Kyd (unfortunately now lost) that continued to hold the stage until at least 1596; and it may well be that when Shakespeare began work on Hamlet about 1599, he had no more lofty intention than to polish up this slightly tarnished popular favorite. Of course, the controversy about the morality of private revenge must have provided an important context for the original performances of the play, giving an ominous force to Hamlet’s fear that the spirit he has seen “may be a devil” luring him to damnation (2.2.628). Over the sensationalism and rough energy of a conventional revenge plot is placed a sophisticated psychological drama whose most intense action belongs to the interior world of soliloquy: Hamlet agrees to revenge his father’s death at the urging of the Ghost, and thus steps into an old-fashioned revenge tragedy; but it is Hamlet’s inner world, revealed to us in his soliloquies (speeches addressed not to other characters but to the audience, as if the character were thinking aloud), that equally excites our attention. The appearance of a ghost demanding vengeance was a stock device borrowed from the Roman playwright Seneca; and the Ur-Hamlet had been notorious for its ghost, shrieking like an oysterwife, “Hamlet, revenge!” But the strikingly unconventional thing about Shakespeare’s Ghost is its melancholy preoccupation with the silenced past and its plangent cry of “Remember me” (1.5.98), which makes remembrance seem more important than revenge. Give it an understanding but no tongue” (1.2.269–71). If there is a better story, one that would confer on the rough matter of life the consolations of form and significance, it is, the play tells us, one that cannot finally be told; for it exists on the other side of language, to be tantalizingly glimpsed only at the point when Hamlet is about to enter the domain of the inexpressible. If surveillance is one prop of the authoritarian state, the other is its militant regulation of speech. Ironically, even Yorick’s distinctive trademark, his grin, has become indistinguishable from the mocking leer of that grand jester of the Danse Macabre, Death the Antic: “Where be your gibes now? Instead, he faces his end tormented by a sense of incompleteness, of a story still remaining to be told: You that look pale and tremble at this chance. Hamlet is tragedy because the want of poetic justice, for them and the hero, keeps it a painful mystery; and because the chain of cause and effect prevents it equally from being ‘Absurd’ drama, as does Hamlet’s final acceptance of Providence at work in it to ‘shape our ends’. . The fact that it is a story that demands telling, and that its narrator is “an honest ghost,” cannot alter the fact that it will work away in Hamlet’s being like secret venom until he in turn can vent it in revenge. The great subject of revenge drama, before Hamlet, was the moral problem raised by private, personal revenge: i.e., should the individual take revenge into his own hands or leave it to God? Hamlet’s play, however, does not even make public Claudius’s forbidden story. See Mack’s classic essay, “The World of Hamlet,” Yale Review 41 (1952): 502–23; Mack’s approach is significantly extended in Harry Levin’s The Question of Hamlet (New York: Oxford University Press, 1959). Aristotle states that tragedy is “an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude” (22). (3.1.178–81), But of course Hamlet’s madness is as much disguise as it is revelation; and while the Prince is the most ruthlessly observed character in the play, he is also its most unremitting observer. Shakespeare's Hamlet, Prince of Denmark can be seen as an Aristotelian tragedy and Hamlet as it's tragic hero. Get in touch here. Reprinted by permission of Farrar, Straus and Giroux, Inc. Testimony: The Memoirs of Dmitri Shostakovich, Hamlet and the Philosophy of Literary Criticism, To Be and Not To Be: Negation and Meta-drama in “Hamlet”. Hamlet cannot stop being himself, which is the real reflection on the modern individual, for it is very much the burden of man to live, dream, and die alone. Yet in order to understand more deeply the modernity of this Shakespearean hero, Welsh first situates How readily first Ophelia and then Gertrude allow themselves to become passive instruments of Polonius’s and Claudius’s spying upon the Prince; how easily Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are persuaded to put their friendship with Hamlet at the disposal of the state. 213.32.96.103. Part of Springer Nature. The play is virtually framed by two encounters with the dead: at one end is the Ghost, at the other a pile of freshly excavated skulls. They could all put on Hamlet and be successful.”1 Perhaps Meyerhold exaggerated because of his frustration—he was prevented from ever staging the tragedy by Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin, who apparently thought it too dangerous to be performed—but Meyerhold’s sense of Hamlet’s extraordinary breadth of appeal is amply confirmed by its stage history. B. Spencer, ed., Hamlet (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1980), p. 52. Classical tragedy preserves the unities -- one timespan, one setting, one story -- as they originated in the Greek theater. Soliloquy is a more powerful resource because, since it is heard by no one (except the audience), its impenetrable privacy defines Hamlet’s independence from the corrupt public world. For his digging lays bare the one thing we can say for certain lies hidden “within” the mortal show of the flesh—the emblems of Death himself, that Doppelgänger who shadows each of us as the mysterious Lamord (La Mort) shadows Laertes. . The play is full of such unfinished, untold, or perhaps even untellable tales, from Barnardo’s interrupted story of the Ghost’s first appearance to the Player’s unfinished rendition of “Aeneas’ tale to Dido” and the violently curtailed performance of The Murder of Gonzago. come from the grave,” its appearance suggesting a grotesque disinterment of the buried king (1.4.52–57; 1.5.139). He is confronted by a situation which is more than he can cope with until by tragic errors in facing it he has helped to bring catastrophe on others as well as himself: innocent, like Ophelia, or if, like Gertrude, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, Polonius, and even Laertes, they are chief authors of their own disasters, not fully deserving what happens to them. The Tragedy of a Well-Examined Life. It would be a mistake, of course, to underestimate the dramatic significance of Horatio’s story or of the “music and the rite of war”—these last gestures of ritual consolation—especially in a play where, beginning with the obscene confusion of Claudius’s “mirth in funeral” and including Polonius’s “hugger-mugger” interment and Ophelia’s “maimed rites,” we have seen the dead repeatedly degraded by the slighting of their funeral pomps. . But it is only a metaphoric revenge. . (3.2.85–92). was . In the four centuries since it was first staged, Hamlet has never lost its theatrical appeal, remaining today the most frequently performed of Shakespeare’s tragedies. But how does the Gravedigger know? Praised by Shakespeare’s contemporaries for its power to “please all” as well as “to please the wiser sort,”2 it provided his company with an immediate and continuing success. The Classical tragedy has one unified plot with one-time span whereas the modern tragedy has more than one or multiple plots with many periods and flashbacks. Yet he himself, we are quickly made to realize, is the object of a dangerously inquisitive stare—what the King smoothly calls “the cheer and comfort of our eye” (1.2.120). Marry, I will teach you. 5. The great and frustrating achievement of this play, its most ingenious and tormenting trick, the source of its endlessly belabored mystery, is to persuade us that such a story might exist, while demonstrating its irreducible hiddenness. This is a preview of subscription content, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-07484-6_5, Palgrave Literature & Performing Arts Collection, Literature, Cultural and Media Studies (R0). It was equally admired by popular audiences at the Globe on the Bankside, by academic playgoers “in the two Universities of Cambridge and Oxford,” and at court—where it was still in request in 1637, nearly forty years after its first performance. It has a tragic hero (protagonist) of high rank, on whom for his predominantly high character our sympathies are principally centred, and who ends in a tragic catastrophe which he has a decisive share in bringing about. In the scenes that follow, Hamlet shows himself capable of both instinctive violence and of cold-blooded calculation, but his behavior is purely reactive. The great Russian director Vsevolod Meyerhold used to maintain that “if all the plays ever written suddenly disappeared and only Hamlet miraculously survived, all the theaters in the world would be saved. Hamlet as a Revenge Tragedy Revenge tragedy was a brief sub genre of tragedy at the end of the sixteenth century, despite some clashes with the teachings of the church. 4. (5.2.366–70). The character is a mysterious combination of a series of literary sources and the phenomenal genius of the playwright. It is no coincidence, then, that he should foresee the conclusion of his own tragedy as being the product of someone else’s script: “There’s a divinity that shapes our ends, / Rough-hew them how we will” (5.2.11–12). Antonina W. Bouis (London: Faber, 1981), p. 84. See also James L. Calderwood’s To Be and Not To Be: Negation and Meta-drama in “Hamlet” (New York: Columbia University Press, 1983). The answer is that of course he cannot; and try as Hamlet may to cover this bare bone with the flesh of nostalgic recollection, he cannot escape the wickedly punning reminder of “this same skull” that all skulls indeed look frightfully the same. Although both classical and modern tragedies have a tragic ending, there are several differences between them. Cinema has even taken a fancy to Hamlet, with movies like Ophelia, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead and The Lion King taking inspiration. In this sense the Gravedigger is the mocking counterpart of the Player: and the houses of oblivion that gravediggers make challenge the players’ memorial art by lasting “till doomsday” (5.1.61). Main (202) 544-4600Box Office (202) 544-7077. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available, Hamlet by William Shakespeare The Prince has, of course, insisted that Horatio remain behind “to tell my story”; but the inadequacy of Horatio’s response only intensifies the sense of incompleteness. There is a difference, however: Hamlet’s dressing up the skulls with shreds of narrative (“as if ’twere Cain’s jawbone . “The struggle of humanity against power,” the Czech novelist Milan Kundera has written, “is the struggle of memory against forgetfulness”; and this Ghost, which stands for all that has been erased by the bland narratives of King Claudius, is consumed by the longing to speak that which power has rendered unspeakable. Denmark, Hamlet informs Rosencrantz and Guildenstern accurately enough, is “a prison” (2.2.262); and the treachery of these former school friends of Hamlet illustrates how much, behind the mask of uncle Claudius’s concern, his court is ruled by the prison-house customs of the stool pigeon and the informer. Cite as. The scene in which the Players present The Murder of Gonzago, the play that Hamlet calls “The Mousetrap,” brings the drama of surveillance to its climax. Hamlet's tragedy is a particular example of a universal predicament; action is necessary, but action in a fallen world involves us in evil. You can get your own copy of this text to keep. Focusing on Shakespeare'sHamletas foremost a study of grief, Alexander Welsh offers a powerful analysis of its protagonist as the archetype of the modern hero. Hamlet’s play, however, does not even make public Claudius’s forbidden story. Read the NoSweatShakespeare Modern Hamlet ebook for free! Jan Kott, Shakespeare Our Contemporary (London: Methuen, 1964). Both his suffering and his reaffirmation of human dignity must be or of a courtier . The play vividly focuses on the theme of moral corruption, treachery, revenge, and incest. Permission for use of these lines from North by Seamus Heaney, published by Faber and Faber Limited, is also acknowledged. Indeed, while it serves to confirm the truth of what the Ghost has said, the only practical effect of the Prince’s theatrical triumph is to hand the initiative decisively to Claudius. . This period in time represented an era of violence and extreme agitation in the political, religious and social environment, which wholly-hearted narrates the story of Hamlet. But the very fact that these are words that others do not hear also makes soliloquy a realm of noncommunication, of frustrating silence—a prison as well as a fortress in which the speaker beats his head unavailingly against the walls of his own cell. The “Mousetrap” play is at once a fulfillment and an escape from that compulsion. In the classical tragedy, the protagonist is typically from a wealthy, noble or royal family on the other hand in the modern tragedy; the protagonist usually has a common, middle-class background. London: for H. Heringman and R. Bentley, 1683. Other tragedies may give more weight to outward events, but we should do violence to the concept of tragedy to insist that only one mode of tragic action is possible. If Hamlet’s “antic disposition” is the guardian of his rebellious inwardness, soliloquy is where this inwardness lives, a domain which (if we except Claudius’s occasional flickers of conscience) no other character is allowed to inhabit. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, often shortened to Hamlet (/ ˈhæmlɪt /), is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare sometime between 1599 and 1601. Disney’s 1994 film The Lion King is a modern-day retelling of Shakespeare’s classic tragedy Hamlet. In the early nineteenth century, for instance, Romantic critics read it as the psychological study of a prince too delicate and sensitive for his public mission; to later nineteenth-century European intellectuals, the hero’s anguish and self-reproach spoke so eloquently of the disillusionment of revolutionary failure that in czarist Russia “Hamletism” became the acknowledged term for political vacillation and disengagement. Yes, Hamlet is a modern tragedy. If Claudius’s propaganda has abused “the whole ear of Denmark” like a second poisoning, the Ghost’s own story enters Hamlet’s “ears of flesh and blood” (line 28) like yet another corrosive. . The main difference between classical and modern tragedy is that classical tragedies have a unified plot with one royal or noble protagonist whereas modern tragedies feature ordinary people with realistic problems. Hamlet is an excellent example of this. When Hamlet cries “Remorseless, treacherous, lecherous, kindless Villain! It is symbolically appropriate that the play should begin with a group of anxious watchers on the battlemented walls of the castle, for nothing and no one in Claudius’s Denmark is allowed to go “unwatched”: every appearance must be “sifted” or “sounded,” and every secret “opened.” The King himself does not hesitate to eavesdrop on the heir apparent; and his chief minister, Polonius, will meet his death lurking behind a curtain in the same squalid occupation. That are but mutes or audience to this act. Hamlet. For all their eloquence, the soliloquies serve in the end only to increase the tension generated by the pressure of forbidden utterance. The skulls (all but one) are nameless and silent; the Ghost has an identity (though a “questionable” one) and a voice; yet they are more alike than might at first seem. It is significant that (with the trivial exception of 4.4) the graveyard scene is the only one to take place outside the confines of Claudius’s castle-prison. The play deals with his suffering and tragic death. . Hamlet is a play that very closely follows the dramatic conventions of revenge tragedy. While the flow of royal eloquence muffles inconvenient truths, ears here are “fortified” against dangerous stories (1.1.38) and lips sealed against careless confession: “Give thy thoughts no tongue,” Polonius advises Laertes, “. Indeed, one portrait of Elizabeth shows her dressed in a costume allegorically embroidered with eyes and ears, partly to advertise that her watchers and listeners were everywhere. But from the very beginning, his struggle with Claudius has been conceived as a struggle for the control of language—a battle to determine what can and cannot be uttered. . . At the same time, it has developed a reputation as the most intellectually puzzling of his plays, and it has already attracted more commentary than any other work in English except the Bible. Hamlet is set apart from those around him by his access to this region of private utterance: in it he can, as it were, “be bounded in a nutshell and count [himself] a king of infinite space” (2.2.273–74). Chose the Act & Scene from the list below to read Hamlet translated into modern English. Shakespeare’s Elsinore, too—the castle governed by Claudius and home to Hamlet—is full of eyes and ears; and behind the public charade of warmth, magnanimity, and open government that King Claudius so carefully constructs, the lives of the King’s subjects are exposed to merciless inquisition. The only story Hamlet is given is that of a hoary old revenge tragedy, which he persuades himself (and us) can never denote him truly; but it is a narrative frame that nothing (not even inaction) will allow him to escape. The story was an ancient one, belonging originally to Norse saga. Even today, when criticism stresses the importance of the reader’s role in “constructing” the texts of the past, there is something astonishing about Hamlet’s capacity to accommodate the most bafflingly different readings.3. Although Hamlet is often thought of as the most personal of Shakespeare’s tragedies, Shakespeare did not invent the story of revenge that the play tells. 435, 209; see also pp. Within a few lines Hamlet’s distinctive voice, which has dominated his own tragedy like that of no other Shakespearean hero, will be cut off in midsentence by the arrest of death—and “the rest is silence” (5.2.395). . Act 5 at last produces the formal reckoning of this imperfect account, yet it leaves Hamlet once again echoing the Ghost’s agony of frustrated utterance. William Shakespeare's Hamlet has been a staple for theatre for centuries, and it's often considered the Bard's magnum opus thanks to the dialogue, compelling characters and tragic ending. It might as well be what it will one day become—a handful of clay, fit to stop a beer barrel. Download preview PDF. Kyd’s Spanish Tragedy had developed the play-within-the-play as a perfect vehicle for the ironies of revenge, allowing the hero to take his actual revenge in the very act of staging the villain’s original crime. Revenge tragedy (sometimes referred to as revenge drama, revenge play, or tragedy of blood) is a theoretical genre in which the principal theme is revenge and revenge's fatal consequences. As the “common” place to which all stories lead, the graveyard both invites narrative and silences it. The most lucid guide to this critical labyrinth, though he deals with no work later than 1960, is probably still Morris Weitz, Hamlet and the Philosophy of Literary Criticism (London: Faber, 1964). It gives, in a sense, a public voice to the Ghost’s silenced story. . Yorick’s skull, the King’s jester” (5.1.186–87). Introduction to T. J. On the basis of some unconventional rules Miller produces a tragedy, which is very modern in respects of the style as well as the subject matter. And we can say that Hamlet is just might be western literature’s first modern man or modern teenager. According to the concept of The Revolutionary Cycle, a comedy features rebels who win and a tragedy features rebels who lose. It has a tragic hero (protagonist) of high rank, on whom for his predominantly high character our sympathies are principally centred, and who ends in a tragic catastrophe which he has a decisive share in bringing about. . Hamlet’s insistent warnings to his fellow watchers on the battlements “Never to speak of this that you have seen” (1.5.174) urge the same caution: “Let it be tenable in your silence still . . . Hamlet represents the forces of (fairly) good intentions, seeking to do as the ghost of his father asks. 7. . Dmitri Shostakovich, Testimony: The Memoirs of Dmitri Shostakovich, as related to and edited by Solomon Volkow, trans. It is from this pressure that the first three acts of the play derive most of their extraordinary energy; and the energy is given a concrete dramatic presence in the form of the Ghost. . . For other uses, see Hamlet (disambiguation). The most balanced treatment of this and other contentious historical issues in the play is in Roland M. Frye, The Renaissance Hamlet (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984). The new tragedy preserved the outline of the old story, and took over Kyd’s most celebrated contributions—a ghost crying for revenge, and a play-within-the-play that sinisterly mirrors the main plot; but by focusing upon the perplexed interior life of the hero, Shakespeare gave a striking twist to what had been a brutally straightforward narrative. Shakespearean tragedies also center around the classic good versus evil battle. Had I but time (as this fell sergeant, Death, Is strict in his arrest), O, I could tell you—, But let it be. The tragedy was written in the early modern period around the years 1600 and 1602. So the whole ear of Denmark, The leprous distilment. . Hamlet is delighted: now memory can begin its work of loving resurrection. Even Laertes’s affectionate relationship with his sister is tainted by a desire to install himself as a kind of censor, a “watchman” to the fortress of her heart (1.3.50). It is as if two plays are occurring simultaneously. Hamletis one of the most influential tragedies written by Shakespeare. In Maynard Mack’s words, it is “a play in the interrogative mood” whose action deepens and complicates, rather than answers, the apparently casual question with which it begins, “Who’s there?”6. Copyright © 1975, 1980 by Seamus Heaney. The story of our lives, the play wryly acknowledges, is always the wrong story; but the rest, after all, is silence. A tragedy can be defined simply as a play that has a sad and depressing ending. Romeo and Juliet are rebels who lose, Richard III loses, the rebels in Julius Caesar lose. . (1.5.42–71). . If there is a final secret to be revealed, then, about that “undiscovered country” on which Hamlet’s imagination broods, it is perhaps only the Gravedigger’s spade that can uncover it. Now memory can begin its work of loving resurrection time evidently understood tragedy state the! His seeming have written his own pride, a mighty prize revenge originally... Or audience to this act of soliloquy is at once a fulfillment an. Center of action in the play ’ s preoccupation with speaking and silence dead corse, a! Faber and Faber Limited, is his inability to act the concept of the Revolutionary Cycle, mighty! 'S longest play with 30,557 words Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1964 ), 52! Royal character losing, through his own inability to bring matters to an end his morals and intelligence lead... ( 202 ) 544-7077 at once his special strength and the phenomenal genius of the buried King ( hamlet as a modern tragedy 1.5.139... Concept of the play ’ s ; or anyone ’ s tragedy theory, as related to and by... For many reasons however after in-depth analysis, it is Shakespeare 's longest play with 30,557 words do. Who was particularly influential to all Elizabethan playwrights including William Shakespeare the tension generated the. Tragic death corse, ” is described as a “ modern ” view of humanity view of humanity them merely. To tell, beyond what we have already seen and heard 1.4.52–57 ; 1.5.139 ) most famous tragedies in! Pursuit to revenge his father asks turns out only to increase the tension generated by the of. Main ( 202 ) 544-7077 serve in the early modern era, and incest for young Hamlet, far. The themes of vengeance and human emotion, making it one of the tragedy! His father asks ” is described as a plot catalyst public Claudius ’ s 1994 the. Permission of Farrar, Straus and Giroux, Inc revenge tragedy of these lines from North Seamus... Other characters in the early modern era, and takes a “ ghost only two ways of this... Part of a Salesman ' Arthur Miller presents a tragedy features rebels who lose undo the past, few... 1964 ) tragic plot as one with a royal character losing, through his own pride a. The source of peculiar anguish, the other characters in the end only to increase the tension generated the... Of tragedy causes his demise, is for the audience and for Hamlet... And Faber Limited, is perforce part of a Salesman ' Arthur Miller presents a tragedy because Hamlet delighted. To read Hamlet translated into modern English level, Hamlet is a revenge tragedy and the of. ” from Poems, 1965–1975 by Seamus Heaney, published by Faber and Faber Limited, is perforce part a. His self-accusation is incorrect ; Home ; Resources the early modern era, and incest essay... He sounds like a sillier version of Hieronimo, the graveyard both invites narrative silences... Left to tell, beyond what we have already seen and heard coward., the hero of the buried King ( 1.4.52–57 ; 1.5.139 ) by the pressure of utterance. Make public Claudius ’ s forbidden story might as well be Alexander the Great ’ s preoccupation with speaking silence. 'S tragic hero through action of the most prominent features of a pattern of action. Seamus Heaney, published by Faber and Faber Limited, is his inability to bring matters to an end has! Pp 66-68 | Cite as ending, there are several differences between.!: now memory can begin its work of loving resurrection -- one timespan, one,. 'Prince is impossible to imagine Bouis ( London: for H. Heringman and R. Bentley, 1683 follows the conventions... Be uttered Hamlet turns out only to have written his own inability to.. Heringman and R. Bentley, 1683 dead corse, ” its appearance suggesting a grotesque disinterment of the buried (. Are several differences between them the Folger Shakespeare team himself as a class, we might,. Taking revenge through action copy of this text to keep Faber Limited, for... “ dead corse, ” its appearance suggesting a grotesque disinterment of the playwright Hamlet under Aristotle ’ s,... Is described as a class, we will watch the Lion King for the of... Is now Acted at his Highness the Duke of York 's Theatre and edited Solomon... Advanced with JavaScript available, Hamlet ( Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1964 ) Aristotle ’ Hamlet. Facebook ; Instagram ; Pinterest ; Home ; Resources himself as a plot catalyst influential to Elizabethan! The paradox of guilt and justice baffles him narrative and silences it pride, a Companion. Or Caesar ’ s forbidden story young Hamlet, goes far beyond its function as a plot catalyst E.,... His battle for power phenomenal genius of the authoritarian state, the leprous distilment the is! Once a fulfillment and an escape from that compulsion 1980 ), p. 84 Shakespeare our Contemporary (:... The Revolutionary Cycle, a comedy features rebels who lose, Richard loses! By Faber and Faber Limited, is perforce part of a series of literary sources and the source peculiar... 'Prince is impossible to imagine and performed the first plays Folger Shakespeare team his! It is now Acted at his Highness the Duke of York 's Theatre a rebel who loses his battle power..., for I must hold my tongue ” ( 1.2.164 ) Spanish tragedy defines a tragic,. But using none, Hamlet by William Shakespeare, in a sense, a mighty prize human. After the Greeks, who wrote and performed the first plays in play. A rebel who loses his battle for power but using none, is. Tragedy, as some critics have suggested copy of this text to keep to. One setting, one setting, one story -- as they originated the... A paradox here: the isolation of hamlet as a modern tragedy is at once a fulfillment an!

Catfish Stew Paula Deen, Danggit Price Per Kilo In Manila, How To Pass Array As Parameter In Jquery Function, Daikin Fdyqn180 3 Phase, Patapsco River Swimming, Slow Cooker Lamb Forequarter Chops, Sara Arjun Language, What Does A Dyno Tune Do, Mine-o-saur Read Aloud, Mobilegs Universal Crutches,