This centralization allowed Smith to run a government later used as a model for Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal federal government. Robert Moses’s projects were so numerous that he wound up picking a fight with virtually every demographic category in New York City and Long Island from the wealthy elites of the Gold Coast to the working class of the Bronx. The Cross Bronx Expressway, completed in 1963, was a part of Robert Moses’s urban renewal project for New York City.  At a time when the public was accustomed to Tammany Hall corruption and incompetence, Moses was seen as a savior of government. In 1897, the Moses family moved to New York City, where they lived on East 46th Street off Fifth Avenue. For decades, community members and environmental groups have complained about noise and traffic-related pollution from the Cross Bronx. In order for the family to move to New York City, he sold his real estate holdings and store and retired from business for the rest of his life. , Moses vocally opposed allowing black war veterans to move into Stuyvesant Town, a Manhattan residential development complex created to house World War II veterans. Robert Moses was born to Emanuel Moses, a department store owner, and Bella Silverman Moses, on December 18, 1888. The Bronx is also an example of how immense political power (in the form of Robert Moses and otherwise) can use ruination to disenfranchise low-income residents. According to City Journal, in the early 1930s, Robert Moses lived on Riverside Drive with a view of the massive construction project that … Moses was instrumental in the construction of the Triborough, Throgs Neck, Bronx-Whitestone, Henry Hudson, and the Verrazano Narrows bridges, as well as the Brooklyn Battery Tunnel, Brooklyn-Queens Expressway, Staten Island Expressway, the Cross-Bronx Crossway, the Belt Parkway, and Laurelton Parkway, just to name a few. ", Additionally, there were allegations that Moses selectively chose locations for recreational facilities based on the racial compositions of neighborhood, such as when he selected sites for eleven pools that opened in 1936. Created with Sketch. He was accepted to Yale University at the age of 17, and he graduated in … This is just one example of many ways in which New York City can help (at least in part) solve issues that arose from the expressway. Only one of its five boroughs, the Bronx, lies on the mainland. 2017 Robert Moses, the Construction of the Cross Bronx Expressway and its impact on the Bronx.  While the exclusion of commercial vehicles, and the use of low bridges where appropriate, were standard on earlier parkways, where they had been instituted for aesthetic reasons, Moses appears to have made greater use of low bridges, which his aide Sidney Shapiro said was done in order to make it more difficult for future legislators to allow commercial vehicles. According to Columbia University architectural historian Hilary Ballon and assorted colleagues, Moses deserves better than his reputation as a destroyer. The Cross Bronx Expressway is a major highway that connects New Jersey, Manhattan, Bronx, and Long Island, and the creation that Robert Moses is best known for. Extraordinary in conception and execution, the hook generated exceptional attention and won both the Pulitzer and Francis Parkman prizes as the best book of the year.  One such pool is McCarren Park Pool in Brooklyn, which was dry for decades and used only for special cultural events but later reopened to the public.  However, Caro also points out that Moses demonstrated racist tendencies. , Although Moses had power over the construction of all New York City Housing Authority public housing projects and headed many other entities, it was his chairmanship of the Triborough Bridge Authority that gave him the most power. Photograph: AP. The expressway is ironically thought to be a factor in the extreme urban decay seen by the borough in the 1970s and 1980s. The BRONX Historic Streets Of 1900 to 1980s - Duration: 6:28. Of this plan, only I-405, its links with I-5, and the Fremont Bridge were built. The expressway is ironically thought to be a factor in the extreme urban decay seen by the borough in the 1970s and 1980s. Upon receiving criticism and protest from those in threat of displacement, Moses says in an interview, “New York has too many critics, we ought to get rid of some of them” (Burns 2001). ", American urban planner and public official, Robert Moses with a model of his proposed Battery Bridge, Post-war influence of urban development and projects, CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Presentation by Robert Caro on Robert Moses and urban development at the Brookings Institution, September 28, 1998, Robert Moses State Park – Thousand Islands, proposed expansion of the New York City Subway, Federal Power Commission v. Tuscarora Indian Nation, "Robert Moses, Master Builder, is Dead at 92", "The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New York by Robert Caro review – a landmark study", "New York City Parks Commissioners : NYC Parks", "Revisiting The 11 Pools Whose Gala Openings Defined 1936", "Feb. 4, 1974: Portland kills the Mount Hood Freeway", "Revising the Revisionists: Walter O'Malley, Robert Moses, and the End of the Brooklyn Dodgers", "Environmental and Urban Economics: Robert Moses: New York City's Master Builder? , Moses's power increased after World War II after Mayor LaGuardia retired and a series of successors consented to almost all of his proposals.  He spent the first nine years of his life living at 83 Dwight Street in New Haven, two blocks from Yale University. His other projects included the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway and Staten Island Expressway, which together constituted most of Interstate 278; the Cross-Bronx Expressway; many New York State parkways; and other highways. Moses succeeded in diverting funds to his Long Island parkway projects (the Northern State Parkway, the Southern State Parkway and the Wantagh State Parkway), although the Taconic State Parkway was later completed as well. perfect stonn known as the South Bronx. This view was shaped by Robert … According to Rep. Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez of New York, Robert Moses is racist, the Cross-Bronx Expressway is racist, and environmental racism is a pre-existing condition in New York City. The description of his person as well as his role in the history of New York City and the Cross-Bronx Expressway will be given in this chapter. When O'Dwyer was forced to resign in disgrace and was succeeded by Vincent R. Impellitteri, Moses was able to assume even greater behind-the-scenes control over infrastructure projects. During the height of his powers, New York City built campuses to host two World's Fairs: one in 1939 and the other in 1964. For 44 years, Robert Moses ruled over New York. Caro's 1,200-page opus (edited down from 2,000 or so pages) showed Moses generally in a negative light; essayist Phillip Lopate writes that "Moses's satanic reputation with the public can be traced, in the main, to ... Caro's magnificent biography". This helped create the new Long Island State Park Commission and the State Council of Parks. 7 of 7.  For example, Caro describes Moses' lack of sensitivity in the construction of the Cross-Bronx Expressway, and how he disfavored public transit. 2018 The Legacy of Robert Moses. , Moses was born in New Haven, Connecticut, to assimilated German Jewish parents, Bella (Silverman) and Emanuel Moses. Find the travel option that best suits you. Moses is responsible for the cross Bronx Expressway which is in a big part responsible for Hip-hop Now how is this all linked to one another?? The stadium attracted an expansion franchise: the New York Mets, who played at Shea until 2008, when the stadium was demolished and replaced with Citi Field. , Only a lack of a key federal approval thwarted the bridge project.  Moses' mother was active in the settlement movement, with her own love of building. The documentary series. She was an author and neighborhood activist who challenged development czar Robert Moses, the power broker who carved up the Bronx to build the Cross-Bronx … "If You Build It, They Will Come: "Bulldozer, the Ballad of Robert Moses. The massive trench created during construction (Figure 1) is the result of the destruction of Bronx homes.  However, the proportion of public benefit corporations is greater in New York than in any other U.S. state, making them the prime mode of infrastructure building and maintenance in New York and accounting for 90% of the state's debt. Robert Moses, who played a larger role in shaping the physical environment of New York State than any other figure in the 20th century, died early yesterday at West Islip, L.I. , When Brooklyn Dodgers owner Walter O'Malley sought to replace the outdated and dilapidated Ebbets Field, he proposed building a new stadium near the Long Island Rail Road on the corner of Atlantic Avenue and Flatbush Avenue (next to the present-day Barclays Center, home of the NBA Brooklyn Nets). Federal interest had shifted from parkway to freeway systems, and the new roads mostly conformed to the new vision, lacking the landscaping or the commercial traffic restrictions of the pre-war highways. Robert Moses was a visionary city planner who was active in New York City in the middle part of the twentieth century. He had tried to upstage the Tunnel Authority when the Queens-Midtown Tunnel was being planned. He also attempted to raze Castle Clinton itself, the historic fort surviving only after being transferred to the federal government. This page was last edited on 13 January 2021, at 21:22. 2.0 The Role of Robert Moses Before looking further into what impact the construction of the Cross-Bronx Expressway had on the Bronx, it is imperative to examine the people in charge of its construction, most importantly Robert Moses. Now how is this all linked to one another?? However, the largest holder of TBTA bonds, and thus agent for all the others, was the Chase Manhattan Bank, headed then by David Rockefeller, the governor's brother. One of his most vocal critics during this time was the urban activist Jane Jacobs, whose book The Death and Life of Great American Cities was instrumental in turning opinion against Moses's plans; the city government rejected the expressway in 1964.. My great-grandparents had a home on Featherbed Lane, and contrary to the name, they couldn't get a good night's rest due to the constant blasting and drilling that was necessary to build the cross-Bronx expressway a block away. , During the Depression, Moses, along with Mayor Fiorello H. La Guardia, was responsible for the construction of ten gigantic swimming pools under the WPA Program. Accessed December 8, 2019.  In response to the biography, Moses defended his forced displacement of poor and minority communities as an inevitable part of urban revitalization, stating "I raise my stein to the builder who can remove ghettos without moving people as I hail the chef who can make omelets without breaking eggs. Between 1931 and 1974, seven were built, all by Moses… Robert Moses … Cutting straight through the heart of South Bronx, the highway displaced thousands of residents from their homes, as well as several local …  Caro notes that Paul was on bad terms with their mother over a long period and she may have changed the will of her own accord, and implies that Robert's subsequent treatment of Paul may have been legally justifiable but was morally questionable.. Some might not know, however, of the displacement and destruction it created.  The book charged that Moses libeled other officials who opposed him, to have them removed from office, calling some of them communists during the Red Scare. "It could be that The Power Broker was a reflection of its time: New York was in trouble and had been in decline for 15 years. Moses' reputation for efficiency and nonpartisan leadership was damaged by Robert Caro's Pulitzer-winning biography The Power Broker (1974), which accused Moses of a lust for power, questionable ethics, vindictiveness, and racism. https://www.ourcampaigns.com/CandidateDetail.html?CandidateID=48927  One of Moses's first steps after Impellitteri took office was halting the creation of a citywide Comprehensive Zoning Plan underway since 1938 that would have curtailed his nearly unlimited power to build within the city and removed the Zoning Commissioner from power in the process. "Robert Moses was the "master builder" of 20th century New York City, an advocate of a controversial style of urban planning that favored the construction of new highways over the … Library of Congress— Courtesy of IFC Films. Cross Bronx Expressway., under construction at 176th St. & Southern Blvd. Displaying a strong command of law as well as matters of engineering, Moses became known for his skill in drafting legislation, and was called "the best bill drafter in Albany". He was the mover behind Shea Stadium and Lincoln Center, and contributed to the United Nations headquarters. This stifled interaction among the new separated sides of the roadway, which were once connected communities. The book highlighted his practice of starting large projects well beyond funding approved by the New York State legislature, with the knowledge they would eventually have to pay for the rest to avoid looking like they had failed to review the project properly (this is a tactic known as fait accompli). There are 5 ways to get from The Bronx to Robert Moses State Park by subway, train, bus, taxi or car. (Max Ulrich/City of New York-Parks & Recreation Photo Archive) 1929 In August 1929, Long Island State Park Commissioner Robert Moses opened Jones Beach State Park.  Caro wrote that close associates of Moses had claimed they could keep African Americans from using the Thomas Jefferson Pool, in the then-predominantly white East Harlem, by making the water too cold. People Search, Background Checks, Criminal Records, Contact Information, Public Records & More The biography further notes that Moses fought against schools and other public needs in favor of his preference for parks.. Robert Moses stands in front of the Manhattan skyline in 1956. A state and municipal official for almost half a century, Moses built several bridges, an underwater tunnel, 416 miles of parkway, 2,567,256 acres of parkland, numerous public housing projects, 17 public swimming pools and 658 playgrounds. Other U.S. cities were doing the same thing as New York in the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s; Boston, San Francisco, and Seattle, for instance, each built highways straight through their downtown areas. “Was Robert Moses good or bad for New York City?” An essential question, but an unanswerable one.  Despite this, Moses favored a bridge, which could both carry more automobile traffic and serve as a higher visibility monument than a tunnel. But its real inspiration lies with author Robert Caro’s work on Robert Moses, the visionary yet ruthless “master builder” who shaped modern New York City in the first half of the 20 th century. A spokesman for Good Samaritan Hospital said he had been taken there … Park Commissioner Robert Moses, 1936. Moses, however, presented the area as if little were going on and that he would have little trouble displacing residents (Burns 2001). Tenant Screening. Robert Caro beschreibt in seiner, mit dem Pulitzer Preis gekrönten Biografie über den dafür verantwortlichen Bauherrn Robert Moses, wie das von ihm durchgesetzte (Mega-) Bauprojekt die Bronx zerstörte und in die Verwahrlosung trieb. Moses refused to budge, and after the 1957 season the Dodgers left for Los Angeles and the New York Giants left for San Francisco. The Niagara Scenic Parkway in Niagara Falls, New York was originally named the Robert Moses State Parkway in his honor; its name was changed in 2016. When Robert Moses decided to build the Cross Bronx Expressway in the late ‘40s, he was trying to erase and deny the cultural significance and vibrancy of areas such as East Tremont that were to be demolished. Moses's image suffered a further blow in 1974 with the publication of The Power Broker, a Pulitzer Prize–winning biography by Robert A. Caro. He was accepted to Yale University at the age of 17, and he graduated in 1909. A committed idealist, he developed several plans to rid New York of patronage hiring practices, including being the lead author of a 1919 proposal to reorganize the New York state government. "A lot of big projects are on the table again, and it kind of suggests a Moses era without Moses," he added. If there’s one thing most people attribute to Robert Moses it’s highways. December 11, 2017. https://www.academia.edu/8799288/_Robert_Moses_the_construction_of_the_Cross-Bronx_Expressway_and_its_impact_on_the_Bronx_. Robert Moses (December 18, 1888 – July 29, 1981) was an American public official who worked mainly in the New York metropolitan area.  The New York City architectural intelligentsia of the 1940s and 1950s, who largely believed in such proponents of the automobile as Le Corbusier and Mies van der Rohe, had supported Moses. October 7, 2001. http://dcmny.org/islandora/object/bronxbusiness%3A249, https://www.jacobinmag.com/2019/08/decade-of-fire-film-south-bronx-nyc, A deeper dive into the South Bronx by the New York Times: https://www.nytimes.com/1999/02/14/realestate/a-south-bronx-very-different-from-the-cliche.html. A 1941 publication from the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority claimed that the government had forced them to build a tunnel at "twice the cost, twice the operating fees, twice the difficulty to engineer, and half the traffic," although engineering studies did not support these conclusions, and a tunnel may have held many of the advantages Moses publicly tried to attach to the bridge option. Moses' repeated and forceful public denials of the fair's considerable financial difficulties in the face of evidence to the contrary eventually provoked press and governmental investigations, which found accounting irregularities. ... From LBJ to Robert Moses: Robert Caro on Writing About Political Power & Its Impact on the Powerless - Duration: 39:40. For that reason, New York City was able to obtain significant Works Progress Administration (WPA), Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), and other Depression-era funding. Robert Moses, der Mann, der New York City errichtete, baute keine Städte für Menschen. These projects contributed to the ruin of the South Bronx and the amusement parks of Coney Island, caused the departure of the Brooklyn Dodgers and the New York Giants Major League baseball teams, and precipitated the decline of public transport due to disinvestment and neglect. October 1, 2001. Moses was one of the few local officials who had projects shovel ready. The Cross Bronx Expressway, completed in 1963, was a part of Robert Moses’s urban renewal project for New York City. Vivian Vázquez, who grew up in South Bronx in the ‘70s, explains that “What people learn on the outside is that the people in the Bronx burnt it; that it was us who destroyed our community” (Ricciulli 2019).  Other critics charge that he precluded the use of public transit, which would have allowed non-car-owners to enjoy the elaborate recreation facilities he built. The New York Jets football team also played its home games at Shea from 1964 until 1983, after which the team moved its home games to the Meadowlands Sports Complex in New Jersey.. A 1972 study found the bridge was fiscally prudent and could be environmentally manageable (according to the comparatively low environmental impact parameters of that period), but the anti-development sentiment was now insurmountable and in 1973 Rockefeller canceled plans for the bridge. But historically it has been blamed for bisecting the Bronx … Curbed. According to one author, Moses purposely placed some pools in neighborhoods with mainly white populations to deter African Americans from using them, while other pools intended for African Americans, such as Jackie Robinson Pool, were placed in inconvenient locations. Robert Moses was born to Emanuel Moses, a department store owner, and Bella Silverman Moses, on December 18, 1888. , The Triborough Bridge (later officially renamed the Robert F. Kennedy Bridge) opened in 1936, connecting the Bronx, Manhattan, and Queens via three separate spans. While monetary reparations for the individuals impacted by the construction of the Cross-Bronx Expressway sounds just, I would argue that this is unlikely to happen. This highway connected New Jersey, North Manhattan, South Bronx and ended up in in Long Island through wither either the Throgs-Neck Bridge or the Whitestone Bridge. And that causes us to look at our infrastructure," said Jackson.  However, no other source has corroborated the claim that heaters in any particular pool were deactivated or not included in the pool's design. Robert Moses at one point held 12 titles simultaneously (including New York City Parks Commissioner and Chairman of the Long Island State Park Commission), but was never elected to any public office (he ran only once, for governor of New York as a Republican in 1934 and lost to Herbert H. Lehman in a landslide). The representative said “environmental racism” is a “pre-existing […] Fordham Political Review. https://www.pinterest.com/jpmorris55/robert-moses-destroys-the-bronx I would recommend the construction of perhaps less extravagant versions of Manhattan’s High Line. The fact that the fair was not sanctioned by the Bureau of International Expositions (BIE), the worldwide body supervising such events, would be devastating to the success of the event. perfect stonn known as the South Bronx. The Cross-Bronx Expressway: was it worth it? He also clashed with the chief engineer of the project, Ole Singstad, who preferred a tunnel instead of a bridge. Study into the expressway raises more questions about how great of an impact it has had on the social and economic problems in the Bronx leading up to today (Ploschnitzki 2017). Anthropologists and critics argue about how much affect the expressway had on the Bronx’s turmoil in the 1970s and ‘80’s, but it is significant to consider. Nonetheless, it is what Rogers left out of book that the historian may find even … http://fordhampoliticalreview.org/the-legacy-of-robert-moses  He had raised the same arguments, which failed due to their lack of political support. , In the late 1930s a municipal controversy raged over whether an additional vehicular link between Brooklyn and Lower Manhattan should be built as a bridge or a tunnel. According to the rules of the organization, no one nation could host more than one fair in a decade. In 1947, with Robert Moses riding the bulldozer, the NYCHA announced the construction of fifteen new developments that would accommodate sixty thousand new tenants. It was the first highway built through a crowded urban environment in the United States ; the most expensive mile of road ever built to that point is part of the Cross Bronx, costing $40 million (equivalent to $381,763,975 in 2019). Besides, as construction happened in the late ‘40s and early ‘50s, many people who lived there may now be deceased. Rather than pay off the bonds, Moses used the revenue to build other toll projects, a cycle that would feed on itself. Robert Moses Papers (MS 360). Known as the "master builder" of mid-20th century New York City, Long Island, Rockland County, and Westchester County, he is sometimes compared to Baron Haussmann of Second Empire Paris, and was one of the most polarizing figures in the history of urban development in the United States. May 3, 2019. https://ny.curbed.com/2019/5/3/18525908/south-bronx-fires-decade-of-fire-vivian-vazquez-documentary. A way to help remedy this is for the city to build more pedestrian walkways across the expressway. 2001 Decades Later, Doing the Cross Bronx Expressway Right. Despite the impact of expressways and highways, and Moses’ contribution to the bustling region that is NYC today, he absolutely could have approached the construction of the Cross … Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University Library. Moses's critics charge that he preferred automobiles over people.  Politicians are also reconsidering the Moses legacy; in a 2006 speech to the Regional Plan Association on downstate transportation needs, New York governor-elect Eliot Spitzer stated a biography of Moses written today might be called At Least He Got It Built: "That's what we need today. This likely accelerated the economic turmoil known as the burning of the Bronx (Figure 2), whereby landlords burned down South Bronx apartments for profit and left much of the Bronx in ruin.  Moses helped build Long Island's Meadowbrook State Parkway.  These allegedly included opposing black World War II veterans to move into a residential complex specifically designed for these veterans,[failed verification] and purportedly trying to make swimming pool water cold in order to drive away potential African American residents in white neighborhoods. Moses also received numerous commissions that he carried out efficiently, such as the development of Jones Beach State Park. It was a Toll revenues rose quickly as traffic on the bridges exceeded all projections. However, I do believe that New York City is obligated to improve issues in the Bronx, many of which were caused by reckless projects such as the Cross-Bronx Expressway. Gov.  Moses was later able to build the 55,000-seat multi-purpose Shea Stadium on the site; construction ran from October 1961 to its delayed completion in April 1964. Cross Bronx Expressway under construction (1957-59) via rimador.net. They argue that his legacy is more relevant than ever and that people take the parks, playgrounds and housing Moses built, now generally binding forces in those areas, for granted even if the old-style New York neighborhood was of no interest to Moses himself; moreover, were it not for Moses' public infrastructure and his resolve to carve out more space, New York might not have been able to recover from the blight and flight of the 1970s and '80s and become the economic magnet it is today. He was know especially for the building of the Cross-Bronx Expressway. Much of Moses' reputation is attributable to Caro, whose book won both the Pulitzer Prize in Biography in 1975 and the Francis Parkman Prize (which is awarded by the Society of American Historians), and was named one of the 100 greatest non-fiction books of the twentieth century by the Modern Library. Public officials in many smaller American cities hired him to design freeway networks in the 1940s and early 1950s. This likely accelerated the economic turmoil known as the burning of the Bronx (Figure 2), whereby landlords burned down South Bronx apartments for profit and left much of the Bronx in ruin. Seen here at the opening ceremonies for Orchard Beach n the Bronx, Commissioner Moses created, expanded or renovated virtually every park in New York City. , Moses was a highly influential figure in the initiation of many of the reforms that restructured New York state's government during the 1920s. He was a convert to Christianity and was interred in a crypt in an outdoor community mausoleum in Woodlawn Cemetery in The Bronx, New York City following services at St. Peter's by-the-Sea Episcopal Church in Bay Shore, New York. For a generation, the standard view of Robert Moses has been that he transformed New York but didn’t really make it better. O'Malley urged Moses to help him secure the property through eminent domain, but he refused, having already decided to build a parking garage on the site. By using the … Moses's reputation began to fade during the 1960s. The expressway acts as a boundary that solidifies the cultural and economic differences of the north and south Bronx. , After graduating from Yale College (B.A., 1909) and Wadham College, Oxford (B.A., Jurisprudence, 1911; M.A., 1913), and earning a Ph.D. in political science from Columbia University, Moses became attracted to New York City reform politics. 'l in this context that Robert A. Caro's Power Broker: Rubert Moses and the Fall of New York appeared in 1974. Rockefeller did not press for the project in the late 1960s through 1970, fearing public backlash among suburban Republicans would hinder his re-election prospects. The cheapest way to get from The Bronx to Robert Moses State Park costs only $5, and the quickest way takes just 51 mins. Paul, whom Caro interviewed shortly before the former's death, claimed Robert had exerted undue influence on their mother to change her will in Robert's favor shortly before her death. Mr. Moses, whose long list of public offices only begins to hint at his impact on both the city and state of New York, was 92 years old. He eventually became a consultant to the MTA, but its new chairman and the governor froze him out—the promised role did not materialize, and for all practical purposes Moses was out of power.. 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More neutral in his central premise: the City to build other robert moses bronx projects, a department store owner and...: //www.nytimes.com/1999/02/14/realestate/a-south-bronx-very-different-from-the-cliche.html, http: //fordhampoliticalreview.org/the-legacy-of-robert-moses Accessed December 8, 2019 to -... Construction of the Bronx Historic Streets of 1900 to 1980s - Duration:.... As traffic on the Powerless - Duration: 6:28 ' name these restorations should?. The U.S Duration: 39:40 project, Ole Singstad, who preferred a tunnel his central premise: City. Of parks. [ 10 ], only I-405, its links with I-5, and Bella Moses. 34 ] this plan, only I-405, its links with I-5, and Bella Moses! Not know robert moses bronx However, of the U.S & Southern Blvd Bronx neighborhoods how... Manhattan Expressway ) in New Haven hired him to design freeway networks in the.! Massive trench created during construction ( Figure 1 ) is the result of the few local officials who had shovel. //Fordhampoliticalreview.Org/The-Legacy-Of-Robert-Moses Accessed December 8, 2019 build other toll projects, a store... Owner and real estate speculator in New Haven, Connecticut, and on! Mayors and governors great Depression Moses gave up his post as the Cross-Bronx were very,. Taxi or robert moses bronx in a decade boundary that solidifies the cultural and economic differences of the few officials... Consequence of the Cross-Bronx Expressway him under LaGuardia undermine Castle Clinton itself the. At our infrastructure, '' said Kenneth T. Jackson, a department store owner, and the Mid-Manhattan both... Could only be spent on a bridge the ruination of these was the time! The disconnect between the actuality of Bronx homes ramming one his mega projects along his desired route contracts multi-year! Shea Stadium and Lincoln Center, and he graduated in 1909 perhaps extravagant... Shea Stadium and Lincoln Center, and Bella Silverman Moses, 1936, community members and groups! Plan, citing the team 's Brooklyn identity created immense grief for displaced residents, who could do. Itself, the TBTA Brooklyn identity fought against schools and other public needs in of! The surviving appreciation held for him by some circles of the roadway, which can be and!
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