Prolegomena and extracts from Commentaries on the Psalms. He will acquiesce in it, whatever it be, committing himself to the judgment of his God and Saviour." Neander, iv. Although his orthodoxy had been acknowledged by Leo and his restoration required by the emperor, the anti-Nestorian section would not hear of his recognition as a bishop until he had in express terms anathematized Nestorius. He explained his objections in a long letter to Acacius, which, however, opened a way for pacification by interpretations of some questionable points in his anathematisms which he refused to withdraw. 597–599). Theodoret was one of the last to yield. Before the deputies finally left Chalcedon, the Orientals delivered addresses to the adherents of the deposed Nestorius who had crossed the Bosphorus from Constantinople. 766, c. 61). The two kings in verse 27 ? But we have, in a Latin version, a long letter addressed to the followers of Nestorius at Constantinople, declaring his adherence to the orthodox faith, although he had felt unable to acquiesce in the condemnation of Nestorius, not believing that the doctrines ascribed to him were actually held by him (Baluz. The East has ever been the nursery of heresy. His style of commentary, the hermeneutics of his school and the distinctive Antioch text of the Old Testament are of particular interest to modern scholars and readers.åÊ. Fab. ; Baluz. His writings against Cyril were incl… These are Ἀτρεπτος , Immutabilis , Ἀσύγχυτος , Inconfusus, and Ἀπαθής , Impatibilis . He received an extensive education at an early age. Mém. His own cause came on at the eighth session, Oct. 26. 31). Theodoret readily replied to the anathematisms seriatim. 15 (1.) John, now hopeless of peace otherwise, applied to the secular power. 71 seq.). cit. His rich Christian family gave Theodoret a thorough education in classic culture, literature, and philosophy. Pelagius was allowed to lay before the synod the proofs of his accusation, contained in "The Apology of Theodoret, bp. Feodorit. These works attracted architects and engineers to the city, and afforded remunerative employment to many people, for whose benefit he secured the help of presbyters skilled in medical science ( Epp. From his "internement" at Cyrrhus Theodoret calmly watched his enemies' proceedings. He was unwearied in preaching, and his acquaintance with the Syrian vernacular enabled him to reach the poorest and most ignorant. 193–195). He continued to attend the sessions of the council, but without voting, and taking no part in the deposition of Dioscorus. (2) A Short Extract from a Commentary on St. Luke . of Cyrrhus, or Cyrus, in the province of Euphratensis, was born at Antioch probably c. 393 (Tillemont). ecclés. Theodoret, with the other bishops of the province, on this, withdrew from communion with him, and published a synodical letter charging him with ordaining unworthy persons ( ib. He is ready to anathematize all who assert that Christ was mere man, or who divide Him into two Sons, or who deny His Godhead. despatched in the name of John and his suffragans to Nestorius, exhorting him to give up his objections to the term "Theotokos," seeing that its true sense was part of the Church's faith, and entreating him not to throw the whole of Christendom into confusion for the sake of a word, has been with great show of probability ascribed to the practised pen of Theodoret. After serving as a lector, he withdrew to a monastery in 416. The last of the great biblical commentators of the school of Antioch, Theodoret wrote works on all the prophets during his years as bishop of Cyrus. Schulze, vol. of Church , p. 395), "he traces the primacy of Rome to her civil greatness, her soundness of faith, and her possession of the graves of the apostles Peter and Paul. The paragraphs directed against Cyril's twelve articles were slightly modified, but the main body was unaltered (Cyril. His care for the temporal interests and material prosperity of his diocese was no less remarkable. "What," writes Dr. Newman, "made him drink in with such relish what we reject with such disgust? p. 177). Feodorit Kirrskij. 294). Lightfoot writes, "His commentaries on St. Paul are superior to his other exegetical writings, and have been assigned the palm over all patristic expositions of Scripture. xv. 1911. 80, p. 1137). of Theodoret's works in Bohn's Lib. Sirmond, to which a 5th vol. This is questioned by some, and must be regarded as doubtful. Against this reproach and against the suspicion that he had given in to escape persecution or to secure a higher place Theodoret sought to defend himself (ib. According to Tillemont, he was born at Antioch in 393, and died either at Cyrrhus ("about a two-days' journey east of Antioch" or eighty Roman miles), or at the monasterynear Apamea (fifty-four miles southeast of Antioch) about 457. Cyrrhus was equally fertile in heretics. col. 445, c. To do this (Theodoret writes to his friend Andrew of Samosata) would be to anathematize godliness itself. ed. Photius finds fault with his too great fondness for metaphor, while he praises his style as "clear, lofty, and free from redundancy" ( Cod. The interposition of Pulcheria and of the Western princesses was employed in vain. c. vii. These accusations were accepted at court, and Dioscorus obtained an imperial edict (dated by Tillemont Mar 30, 449) that as a disturber of the peace of the church Theodoret should keep to his own diocese. The Auctarium of Garnier also contains the following: (1) Prolegomena and Extracts of Commentaries on the Psalms, probably derived from Catenae . Theodoret speaks also of Diodorus of Tarsus as his teacher, but this can only have been through his writings. 314). The whole subject presents a very curious intellectual problem. It excites our wonder at what Dr. Newman calls the "easy credence, or as moderns would say large credulousness," which appears more astonishing as he had been brought up in the most matter-of-fact, prosaic, and critical school of ancient Christendom. II. His inflexible metropolitan, Alexander, vehemently denounced as treason to the truth any approach to reconciliation with Cyril. iii. of Cyrus (Moscow, 1890, 2vols. Controversial , dealing with the anathematisms of Cyril, the Eutychian heresy, and, in a work written towards the end of his life, with heresies in general. and in 10 parts. "Burn them!—burn them!" Theological .—The chief is an apologetic treatise, intended to exhibit the confirmations of the truth of the Christian faith contained in the philosophical systems of the Gentiles, under the title Ἑληνικῶν θεραπευτικὴ παθημάτων , Graecarum Affectionum Curatio, seu Evangelicae Veritatis ex Gentilium Philosophia Cognitio. But few years remained to Theodoret, and of these very little is known. pp. Finding his growing isolation more and more intolerable, Theodoret invited the chiefs of the fast-lessening band of his sympathizers, Alexander, Andrew, and others, to take counsel at Zeugma, in reference to the union with Cyril, which had been accepted by John and earnestly pressed upon them by the combined weight of the ecclesiastical and civil power. Used by Permission. The council of Chalcedon met on Oct. 8, 451. c. 95, 662, 801), accepted the orthodoxy of Cyril's letter and regarded it as a recantation of his obnoxious twelve articles, but would not pronounce an anathema on Nestorius. With considerable trouble he obtained from Palestine relics of prophets, apostles, and martyrs, for the greater glory of a church he had built ( Relig. (3) Λἱρετικῆς Κακομυθίας ἐπιτομή , Haereticarum Fabularum Compendium , a work directed against heresies in general, in five books. He calls it "a small and desolate city," with but "few inhabitants, and those poor," whose ugliness he had striven to redeem by costly buildings erected at his own expense ( Ep. fol. The ed. This desire he saw in part fulfilled. But for his complete satisfaction an oecumenical council was necessary, and to bring that about he laboured with all his might. (2) The Religious History, φιλόθεος ἱστορία , is devoted to the lives of 30 celebrated hermits and ascetics, his contemporaries, and was written from personal knowledge and popular report before his Ecclesiastical History . It is right to add, however, that Theodoret himself modestly disclaims any such merit. p. 1251; Ep. It is not even certain whether he returned to his episcopal duties at Cyrrhus or remained in the quiet Apamean monastery, devoting himself to literary labours. His parents held a high position at Antioch. He could boast with all honesty to pope Leo I. in 449 that by the help of his prayers not a single plant of tares was left among them, and that his whole flock had been delivered from heretical errors (Epp. 79, 81). The long and bitter controversy, in which both parties did and said many regrettable things; was closed by the death of Cyril, June 9 or 27, 444. t. v. pp. vi. John was shocked at what he deemed the positive affinity to Apollinarian doctrine of some of these articles, and applied first to Andreas of Samosata and then to Theodoret to confute them. He was allowed to retire to his monastery near Apamea (Ep. Other treatises he wrote then are lost. lib. The following facts about his life are gleaned mainly from his Epistles and his Religious History (Philotheos historia). Theodoret (c. 393-460) was born in Antioch of Syria. Though still holding back from reconciliation with Cyril, he was virtually the means of bringing about the long-desired peace. On the arrival of John and his Oriental brethren, Theodoret at once united himself to them, and gave his voice for the deposition and excommunication of Cyril, Memnon, and their adherents (Labbe, iii. The history is learned and generally impartial, "though it is occasionally one-sided and runs off into a theological treatise." 125, 126, 129; Le Brigandage , pp. The Condemnation of “the Three Chapters.” The Works of Theodoret. Synod. 146). 104–109), and a letter of his to Alexander of Hierapolis, whom he was representing, informing him how matters were going on at Chalcedon, telling him of the popularity of the deputies with the people, who, in spite of the hostility of the clergy and monks by whom they had been repeatedly stoned, flocked to hear them, assembling in a large court surrounded with porticos, the churches being closed against them; but Theodoret laments their ill-success with the emperor. Was unaltered ( Cyril he withdrew to a monastery in 416 he was virtually the of. Received not only a generous financial assistance to complete my... 3.5 what, '' writes Dr.,! As a measured commentator and balanced exponent of his diocese was no less remarkable midst. And Christian virtues if some did not live beyond 453 alone are recorded contained in `` the Antiochenes were by. Divine Providence, and the orthodox sufferers were speedily recalled sermons, etc., given by (. 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